Subhash Chandra Bose is a legendary figure in Indian history. His contribution to the freedom struggle made him a brave hero of India. He left his home and comfort with the determination to liberate his motherland. Subhash Chandra Bose believed that an armed rebellion was necessary to get independence from the British rule.
He was born on 23rd January, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father, Janaki Nath Bose had migrated to Cuttack to work as a barrister. His mother's name was Probhabati. While studying in Presidency College Calcutta, he organized an attack on the British Principal, Mr F.E. Oaten. As a result, he was expelled from the college. The principal had made derogatory remarks about the Indians in his lecture. This showed Subhash's love for his motherland.
Subhash qualified the I.C.S Examination with a brilliant record. But he gave up the service to join in the Non-Co-operation Movement in 1921. He was advised by Gandhiji to work under Chittaranjan Das, (known as Deshbandhu), a prominent political leader in Bengal. There he became a youth educator, journalist in a Bengal weekly 'Banglar Katha', and commandant of the Bengal Congress volunteers. He also worked as the Principal of National College established by C.R Das. When Das became the Mayor of Calcutta, Subhash was appointed as the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation.
He was soon deported to Burma (Myanmar) because he was suspected of having connection with secret revolutionary movements. In 1927, he was released. He became the Mayor of Calcutta in 1930. Subhash looked after the affairs of the Bengal Congress after the death of D.R Das. He was elected as the President of the Bengal Congress. He was imprisoned several times for his patriotic activities.
During his enforced exile, he write The Indian Struggle, 1920-1934. he pleaded India's cause with European leaders. In 1936, Subhash returned from Europe but was arrested by the British Government. He was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive years in 1938 and 1939. During 1938, when Subhash Chandra Bose was its president the Congress set up a National Planning Committee under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru, other leftist and Gandhiji urged for the public sector in large-scale industries as a means of preventing concentration of wealth in a few hands.
In 1939 Subhash Chandra Bose had been re-elected President of the Congress even though Gandhiji had opposed him. Following political difference with Gandhiji, he resigned from the Congress. Subhash Chandra and many of his left-wing followers then founded the Forward Bloc. When he gave a call for an all Indian protest on 9th July an AICC resolution, the working committee took disciplinary action against him, removing him from the president-ship of the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee and debarring him for holding any Congress office for three years.
Subhash Chandra Bose's ideas for liberation were radically different. He was a Swarajist, but he belonged to the extremist faction of th Congress. He believed that Gandhiji's method for freedom would take time. He wanted complete independence of India soon.
In 1940, Subhash was again incarcerated for his rebellious activities through the Forward Bloc. On 26 January 1941, he escaped in disguise from India. He traveled through Kabul, Moscow, Japan and Germany. It Germany, along with some Indians, he made regular broadcasts from a German sponsored Azad Hind Radio. Subhash Chandra knew many foreign and Indian languages. He used to make patriotic speeches in English, Hindi, Bengali, Persian, Tamil, Telegu, Gujurati and pastu.
In 1943, Subhash moved to East Asia and organized the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army). He went to Tokyo and Prime Minister Tojo declared that Japan had no territorial designs in India. Bose returned to Singapore and set up the Provisional Government of free Indian on 21st October, 1943. He proclaimed a free Provisional Government with Andaman and Nicobar as its territory.
In 1945, the Indian national Army invaded India and occupied Imphal and Kohima, Subhash Subhash Bose set up two INA head-quarters, in Rangoon and in Singapore and began to reorganize the INA. Recruits were sought from civilians, funds were gathered, and even a women's regiment were called the Rani Janshi regiment was formed. But unfortunately, Japan was defeated in the World war II. So INA also lost Japanese support. In August 1945, while Bose was fleeing South-east Asia, it is believed that, his plane crashed.
However, the efforts of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose along with Gandhiji's Quit Indian Movement resulted in India's freedom. Subhash popularly called as 'Netaji' was a great patriot and a determined fighter. His attempts for India's independence were unique among all the freedom fighters. Once he said, "I have not found one single instance when freedom has been won without foreign aid. " Therefore, he sough help from the enemy countries of Britain.
Netaji was a patriot to the last drop of his blood. In his passionate love for the motherland, he was prepared to do anything for the sake of liberating his country. In a speech, he once mentioned "All my life, I have been the servant of India, and until the last hour of my life, I shall remain one. My allegiance and loyalty has very been and will ever be to India alone, no matter in what part of the world I live".
Netaji had no formal training. But he was a great organizer and was one of the greatest orators of the freedom struggle. He gave the nation the famous salutation and slogan of "Jai Hind". He have the INA, the rousing war cries of 'Delhi Chalo' (March on to Delhi) and 'Total Mobilization'. He inspired the Indian soldiers with the world - "Give me blood, I will give you freedom". He himself was inspired by the courage of Rani Jhansi Lakshmibia of Jhansi. Hence, he formed a Rani Jhansi battalion. This battalion consisted only of women and proved an impressive asset for the freedom struggle.
Netaji indeed, was a dedicated, devoted and dynamic hero of the Indian National Movement. He is the pride of India. In a proposal in 1992, Netaji was posthumously awarded with the 'Bharat Ratna'. But since his death is yet, a controversy, and keeping in view the sentiments of his family members and public, the Government of India cancelled the proposal.
Dr. Vishwanath Bite