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Wednesday, March 31, 2010



Between the original and the translation exists the same sort of ethical, emotional hierarchy that exists between the self and the other, between home and abroad. One could turn this in favor of translation, but after long periods of colonialism and imperialism, it becomes hard to say that translation has always been a “humanitarian” task; its self-delusions are perhaps as transparent as those of humanitarianism. Translation, as many studies have proved, has been one of the prime tools in the organized programs of conditioning and controlling the other and of ultimately becoming its “representative”, instead of being a mode of expressing the other.
But despite this, there is always some hope in translation. Here we should recall not only the Sanskrit tradition of regarding every creation as un-original, and the post-structuralists who viewed “originary” narratives with suspicion, but also writers like Borges who not only dissolved the mutual so-called-ness between “original” and “translation”, between “original” and “un-original”, but made it almost irrelevant. This view of translation is probably as important to any definition of the “self” as any view on one’s origins.
The lead story in this issue, “The Self and Its Translations”, is the story of Pratilipi. Whatever self this magazine has, is made of up many translated and supposedly “original” texts/selves, which don’t have, nor should have, much in common.
One hopes this can initiate some sort of dialogue.


After the Indian Government’s launch of “Operation Green Hunt” (the nomenclature itself is a kind of violence against the symbolic meanings of “green” and reminds one of the time when the phrase “Buddha Smiles” was turned into a euphemism for the nuclear tests…) the argument has intensified on what is more acceptable – the State’s violence, or violence against the State? The modern nation-state (whatever its official, functional manifestation may be) is not possible without the monopolization of violence by the State and, at least in this sense, is not too different from pre-modern states. The Hindi poet Alok Dhanva had written in 1972:
if a constable has the right to fire a bullet
to save humanity
why don’t I?

The logic behind violence/counter-violence has always been the same. One could imagine a Utopia without violence/counter-violence, but no ‘system’. This poem questioned the State’s right to a monopoly over violence. Does no one have a better way to “save humanity” than firing bullets?
In all this, the one thing that has been beyond debate is the appropriateness of violence. For both sides. For both, their violence is not the “original”, but a “translation”. Not violence, but counter-violence. If the modern nation-state monopolizes violence in order to control it, to decide between “legal” / “proper” and “illegal” / “improper” violence, then it has often, the world over, in the past 100 years, been unsuccessful in doing so. This is not the story of power submitting to the ethical, but the other way round.
In a time that is bereft of even the possibility of non-violence, Alok Dhanva’s 1997 poem comes to mind:
when Bhagat Singh stepped to the scaffold
it was non-violence
which was his toughest task.

Dr. Vishwanath Bite

Effects and Side effects: New States in India

Creating new states has been a very debatable issue right now due to the demands for new states like Telengana and seeing the Telengana state materializing, other regions reiterate their demand for a new state. This article sees the positives and negatives of creating a new state.

Recently, the centre had consented to creating the state of Telengana from Andhra Pradesh. There has been a very mixed response to the creation of the new state. There has been riots for the cause of Telengana and there has been counter-riots for a United Andhra Pradesh as it is now. The last time India created new states, it was in 2000 when the states of Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand were formed from Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Many states have been facing riots for the creation of smaller states from big states. This is because when states are big, their administration becomes tough and development does not reach the required places. Examples include the Vidarbha area from Maharashtra, Harit Pradesh, Bundelkhand from UP, Coorg from Karnataka, Gorkhaland from Assam etc.
The first problem while creating a new state is the facing of riots. There are always conflicts and extreme difference of opinions and a lot of fighting. This is a big problem Then comes the problem of creating the boundaries, making new legislature, elections, jurisdictions etc.
It is an extremely time and expertise consuming process. At the same time, you have to force the centre and state governments to provide you with autonomy. All this consumes a lot of tax money also.
After the formation of the state, the centre bears the duty to give it grants and funds. It also has the huge responsibility of promoting development in these states. It has to offer the state various subsidies, tax cuts, and other schemes in order to boost the state’s growth and bring it into ‘mainstream India’. Even after the formation of the state, there tends to be a state of unrest and insecurity within the state for which there is more diversion of resources.
The idea of new states also means dividing more and more people based on region. This affects the national integrity and unity. This factor is one of the greatest disadvantages of creating new states.
However, there are many good sides of creating new states.
New states are mainly regions which have been ignored by their respective state governments. These regions are the ones stricken by poverty and faces the brunt of many social problems. These new states could stem the problems of poverty if proper resources are allotted to them. They have enormous potential to develop. The states of Chattisgarh and Uttarakhand are living examples of total makeovers of states from poor, underdeveloped regions to highly successful, highly industrialized states. They have uplifted the conditions of the people. Even though it takes time to form and settle, un the end, it is worth it because it helps reduce poverty and also creates a lot of job opportunities. Due to the various subsidies and tax benefits, many industries and businesses are established there, bringing more and more prosperity to the state and also to the nation.
Even though, it is highly advantageous to have new states in our country where it can address the issue of poverty, it should not be created unless absolutely necessary. It should not be created unless the centre is satisfied that creating a new state is the only situation to help the poor people in that region. Because otherwise, it creates a sense of disunity and also pressurizes the centre for precious resources it already lacks.  

Dr. Vishwanath Bite

Tuesday, March 30, 2010

Masculinity and Femininity

Masculinity and femininity refer to a person’s gender identity.  This is whether a person sees themselves as a man or woman and what this means in our society.  This is different from “gender” which is biological, gender roles that are social differences, and gender stereotypes.  Gender role is how a person is supposed to dress, act, think, and feel, based on whether they are a man or woman.  Gender identity is how someone think’s of one’s own gender.  While masculinity and femininity are on opposite ends of a scale, most people find themselves somewhere in the middle depending on certain traits that are attributed to either males or females.  This is the masculinity-femininity continuum.

Among the characteristics that may be considered more masculine are: defending an opinion or belief, being a provider, sexually aggressive, unemotional, logical, rational, intellectual, stoic, adventurous, competitive, playing team sports, being a leader, being forceful, self-sufficient, being an organizer, and being independent.  Chafetz also identified seven areas of traditional masculinity.  Those are physical, functional, sexual, emotional, intellectual, and interpersonal.  The characteristics listed previously fall into one of these areas. 
Characteristics considered more on the feminine end of the scale include: caring for children and others, being empathetic, being indecisive, caring, affectionate, not following through on tasks, and not speaking up when being challenged.
Physical features also play in a role in gender identity.  This does not mean the presence or absence of reproductive organs but of secondary sexual features.  For female attributes, person is considered more feminine if she has large cleavage and a high pitched voice.  More masculine features may include a hairy chest, large muscles, and a deep voice.
Several factors determine gender identity.  Even before birth, gender is an important factor.  This can be seen when expectant parents anxiously wait to hear from the ultrasound tech if they are having a boy or girl.  It is affected by biological factors such as genetics and hormones, and social factors such as family.
While several tests have been developed to determine how masculine or feminine a person is, none have been able to come up with a test that works for all ages, classes, and cultures.  Arbitrary statements about gender role tend to bias the results.
For myself, I consider myself to be much closer to the feminine end of the continuum.  Some of the characteristics I feel I possess that are feminine are caring for others.  I like to volunteer for charities and spend time with my family.  I do not always speak up for myself in a discussion.  I am not a good decision maker.  Physically, I do have cleavage and “feminine” figure.  However I do possess some masculine traits.  I like to be outside and go hiking. I enjoy nature and do not like violence.  I do not consider myself vain and do not spend a lot of time worried about my physical appearance.  I consider myself independent and self-sufficient.   I do not like to go shopping.
I think a lot of things influenced my gender identity.  Obviously my feminine physical traits played a role, though I did not “develop” until a little later than other girls.  My mother played the largest role in my upbringing and she was the oldest of three daughters.  Gender roles were important to her in that women are expected to be certain things like homemakers, stay at home moms, demure, and submissive.  While society has changed, the impact of that upbringing has definitely had an impact on my life.  According to my upbringing, woman is seen as more feminine if she is quiet and caring.  On the contrary, my father raised me to think that anything a boy could do, I could do too.  This may have been in part to the fact that he only had daughters.  This probably played some of the masculine traits of my gender identity such as independence and self-sufficiency. 
In conclusion, I think that masculinity and femininity are things that can only be described in terms of degree and not absolute.  There is no such thing as 100% masculine or 100% feminine.  Everyone has characteristics of both and there are many factors that can influence where people fall along the continuum.
Dr. Vishwanath Bite


WOMEN should regard suffrage as a means, not as an end. A means of release from legal restraints which consider her as less than a human being--of enforcing the principle "no taxation without representation" --of protecting property--of receiving a fair equivalent for labor--of social elevation--of mental and moral enlightenment--of awakening to effort--in short a means of emancipation.
Ignorant, indifferent men and women view the result of the suffrage movement as merely an increased number of votes polled at the regular elections. "Parties and politics will not be changed," they say, there will be nothing gained, only so many more votes to count." They see nothing of the grand consequences enfranchisement involves, the revolutionizing of woman's social position and individual character.
The world needs strong, self-reliant, self-sacrificing, conscientious women for its regeneration. High physical, mental and moral development is what women need. But to this, as a class, they will never attain, while they are treated as inferiors, are deprived of their inherent rights, and are dependent on masculine bounty.
Suppose a mother teaches her son in this manner: "My dear, you must not engage in out-door exercises, for they develop the muscular system, and it is desirable that you should preserve a delicate appearance; and you must not expose your complexion to the rays of the sun. You must submit to tight lacing in order to obtain an improved figure. Yon must conform to all the dictates of fashion, however absurd, unsuitable and uncomfortable; and your attire must claim the most of your time and thoughts. An education is but time and money wasted; a slight knowledge of a few prominent branches together with the fashionable accomplishments is all sufficient. You will never have any use for more, besides learned gentlemen are quite ridiculous.
"The only aim of your life is to marry. Do not trouble yourself about becoming fitted for its responsibilities, nor think of its various duties; you will learn them when you are obliged to. You can labor a little about home if you choose, but to have a regular occupation, trade or profession is very vulgar. Your sisters and myself will support you till you are grown, and then you must marry a rich wife. Remember that while your sisters are free to follow the inclinations of their minds and choose occupations, you must remain with your mother till you have a wife to provide for you. The property you inherit from me will go into her possession, and you will, at all times, be dependent upon her, but that is as it should be. A woman and her husband should be one.
You must not interest yourself in politics; you have no voice in the government. If the laws are oppressive, if your wife becomes dissipated, squanders all your inherited property in gambling and drinking, takes away the money starvation has compelled you to earn, and then beats you for more, you must submit in silence, for you can obtain no redress and if you clamor for reform, you will be termed that horror of horrors 'a strong-minded man.'"
Thus taught and trained what sort of a man would he make ? If possessed of any spirit would he not fret and beat against his chains? Then if parental authority and society sneeringly smiled at any higher aspirations, ridiculed his attempts to escape, and forcibly held him in his "sphere," (so-called), would he not become an idling, inane, silly, dandified puppy.
Yet the majority of girls are thus taught and trained. From this false system of teaching and practice, energetic reformers are endeavoring to emancipate women. If freedom, education, labor, business, responsibility, franchise, and aims are needed to fully develop men, are they not also needed to fully develop women? Let women feel that they are "free and equal," that an occupation is honorable, and that their acts, opinions and influence are of some importance, and they will desert the ranks of ignorance, idleness and folly.
Suffrage is the gate to fields beyond. Fields of labor, of education, of development. Merely the privilege of voting the Republican or Democratic ticket is not our aim, but to make "perfect women, nobly planned."
Croakers prate of evils which will follow the legal and political equality of woman. Every great change is accompanied by temporary evils. But this fact still remains--right is right. And further, liberty does not mean license; nor does the right of ballot annul woman's peculiar duties and responsibilities.
With woman's enfranchisement will come elevation and thorough education. With thorough education will come a just appreciation and a better performance of her duties. In the marriage relation she will take her true position as a help-meet--a woman, not merely as a female.
"But women do not use the privileges they have, why give them more?" ask the oppositionists. True, women as a class do neglect their privileges, they are yet sleeping in a chrysalis state, but there is a promise of what they can be, of what they may be. In the old slavery days, men said: "The slaves will not work without a driver, they cannot support themselves, they are incapable of self-government, and they must remain dependent." But the emancipation has shown how unfounded, how empty their assertions. In the same manner the emancipation of women will reveal stamina, powers and resources among them yet unimagined.

Dr. Vishwanath Bite

Monday, March 29, 2010

Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum Vitae

Name: -                                               Dr. Vishwanath Keru Bite
Date of Birth:                                     19th April 1983
Contact No.:                                       09423278008
E-mail ID:                                 
Marital Status:                                   Single
Caste:                                                  Hindu- Dhangar
Nationality:                                        Indian
Languages Known:                           English, Marathi, Hindi
Permanent Address:                         At. Pisewadi, Po. Avalai, Tal. Atpadi,
Dist. Sangli. 415 315.

Awarded doctorate by Shivaji University, Kolhapur for thesis entitled “Treatment of History in Indian Drama in English” in December 2009.
1.     Paper published in Cyber Literature online Journal ( in June 2009 entitled History and Politics in Vikram Chandra’s Red Earth and Pouring Rain”
2.     Paper published entitled Betrayal Motif in Indira Parthsarathy’s Aurangzebin Synthesis, Indian Journal of English literature and Language in August 2009. Vol.2.No.1. Pp. 226-230.
3.     Paper Published in Cyber Literature Online Journal ( in December 2009 entitled Bravely Fought the Queen: A study of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni’s Queen of Dreams”
4.     Paper entitled “Depiction of women in The Peasant Plays of J. M. Synge” accepted for publication in the book entitled Indian Responce to J.M Synge Editor, Dr. Laxmi Shanker and Dr. C.A. Langare.
5.      Paper entitled “Imagery of Goddess in Gita Mehta’s A River Sutra: A Feminist Approach” accepted for publication in Synthesis, Indian Journal of Literature and Language.
6.     A paper entitled “Jawaharlal Nehru’s Foreign Policy” Published in Online Term Papers Monthly.

Chief and Contributing Editor of
‘The Criterion’: An Online International Journal in English:
1.     Indian English Literature
2.     Postcolonial Literature
3.     British Literature
Paper Presented:
1.      Paper presented in the One-day National Seminar Organised by Aikyabharati Pratisthan Pune entitled Characterisation of Rani Lakshmibai in Indian English Literature with special refrence to Jaishree Mishra’s Rani and Mahashweta Devi’s Queen of Jhashi.”
2.      In a State level seminar organized by Shahaji college Kolhapur entitled Salman Rushdies Enchantress of Florence: A Study”.
3.      In a National Seminar Organized by Mudhoji College Phaltan entitled Journey in to brave new world: Anurag Mathur’s Inscrutable Americans.”
4.       In a National level Seminar Organized by Arts, Science and Commerce College Ramanandnagar on Post-Independence Indian English literature Entitled “Characters in Conflict: Vikram Chandra’s Sacred Games”
5.      In the National Seminar on Relevance of Nehru model of Political Development, organized by Centre of Nehru Studies entitled “Jawaharlal Nehru’s Foreign Policy”.
6.      In National seminar on Gandhi and His Contemporaries organized by Centre of Gandhian Studies entitled “Nationalism in M.K. Gandhi’s Hind Swaraj and  Jawaharlal Nehru’s The Discovery of India”
Conferences/ Seminars/ Workshops
  1. Participated in National level “51st All India English Teachers Conference” held at Shivaji University, Kolhapur dated 26th to 29th Dec., 2006.
  2. Participated in State level “One-Day Seminar on Pragmatics” held at K.B.P. College, Urun-Islampur on 3rd Sept., 2007.
  3. Participated in One-Day State level Seminar on “The Solutions Towards problem of paper setting and Assessment” held at Rahimatpur on 8th Sept., 2007.
  4. Participated in Three-Day State level “Conference of Philosophy” held at Shivaji University, Kolhapur on 6th to 9th Nov., 2008.
  5. Participated in National level seminar organized by Sahitya Akademi and Shivaji University, Kolhapur on “Contemporary Dalit Literature in India from 27th to 29th Nov., 2008.
  6. Participated in the workshop on “Discovery of India” organized by Centre of Nehru Studies, Shivaji University, Kolhapur on 21st and 22nd January 2009.
  7. Participated in State level Seminar on “Emerging Voices In Indian English  Literature” organized by Rajarshi Chh. Shahu College, Kolhapur on 25th and 26th Sept., 2009.
Teaching Experience:
1.     One Year as a Lecturer in Yashwantrao Chavan (K.M.C.) College Kolhapur.
2.     Three months In Vivekanand College Kolhapur.
3.     From 15 Dec. 2007 To 6th Mar, 2009 in Department of English, Shivaji University Kolhapur as Teaching Assistant.
4.     One Year as a Visiting Lecturer in Department of Commerce and Management, Shivaji University Kolhapur. For Academic Year 2008-2009.
5.      Presently working as a full time Lecturer (Leave Vacancy) in Shri Shiv Shahu Mahavidyalaya, Sarud From 07th March 2009 to 31st April 2009. and From 01/07/2009 onwards.

Dr. Vishwanath Keru Bite

Sunday, March 28, 2010

Economic Development of India: A Farce

Title may seem to be strange to politicians, academias as well as Common Man. Agricultural development, development of villages and natural sources available in the villages is my prime concern here. When i was in primary school teachers used to teach us that India is Agricultural country and almost 75% people are farmers, living in the villages. Even Mahatma Gandhi once mentioned India as "country of villages". Today, what i see after just ten to twelve years later is totally different than what i learnt. no one even government cares for village economy. Industrialization caused remarkable change in the attitude towards Village life and its resources. Particularly in Maharashtra, villages face countless problems like power cut, Damaged roads, inadequate transport facilities, paucity of technology and many more. If villages are to be empowered these are the most essential needs of villagers. Instead, they are taught to be happy with what they have. Maharashtra State Electricity Board has declared 13 hours power cut for villages, even in case of my village this is the bitter truth for last four years. Village folks are basically dependent upon agricultural income. If there is no electricity for 13 hours what agricultural profit can you expect from these farmers. In Vidarbha many farmers commit suicide, Why? Only some packages are being announced before election period for some affected families. Is this absolute solution for the problem? The real problem remains untouched for the years, no facilities are being provided to these farmers. I was taught is the primary school that India is country of villages and almost 75% people are dependent on farming. Is this true? Agriculture of India suffers a lot. how many people ripe grains and vegetables today? and How many needs it, if we see this proportion then you may feel its seriousness. 
        Maharashtra government, since last some years (deliberately?) ignoring farmers, villages and Agricultural development. to give some of its instances, many villages doesn't have good roads. Village children are not able to get out of the place for better education. Information and technology is out of reach for them. They can't enjoy even television news and any other informative source. As problem of power cut resists them from being in touch with vast world, which we call a global village? Are they in this stream? Who can they compete with city folks, if they still are literally struggling for their basic needs. My friend's 4 year boy can operate computer easily but he is living in one of the cities of Maharashtra, name of both city and that boy is not important because it seems very common when a boy of just 4 can access internet and computer in the cities. But in the villages even graduate students are far behind this IT stuff. 

     In this worst condition they get their formal education and can you imagine their informal education? Killing time with their playmates, parents can not understand what they are doing as most of them are illiterate. No any kind of guidance is available for them. How can they survive in this changing and fastest world? The only option they might get is farming, and farming condition in any villages is worst these days. Their future in even 21st century is surrounded by utter darkness. 

Thursday, March 25, 2010

Religion And Fanaticism

                       Religion And Fanaticism

26/11 Mumbai was under siege, some 20 odd young men brandishing AK 47 rifles went on a killing spree at a busy railway station, and five stars hotels killing hundreds. This incident brings back memories of the now infamous 9/11 where a handful of highly motivated, misguided souls took controls of aircrafts and banged into the World Trade Center destroying it completely and killing thousands. These incidents again make us realize how susceptible we are in the face of such terror activities, where a group of highly trained and motivated people inflict so much pain and agony to the innocents. The very fact that the actors who perpetrate these acts are ready to die makes them more dangerous, because the very fear of death, the ultimate fear, itself is absent from their psyche and hence they can go to any extent to inflict terror in the minds of people, or they can go to any extent to get the authorities to bend on their knees. The very pertinent example would be the Hijack of Indian Airlines Flight IC 864 to Afghanistan. Their ( Of the hijackers, who were mainly terrorist from Pakistan owing allegiance to Taliban ) demand from the then Indian Government was to get their 20 operatives released from various jails that they were put in and Indian Government had to give in to their pressures as lives of 265 innocent Indians were at stake. The Pilots of the United Airlines aircrafts very well knew that their lives will be snuffed in seconds when they saw the world trade center getting larger and larger in front of their wind screens. Their psychology was so strong that with the knowledge of their death in seconds they kept flying straight into World Trade Center.
Unfortunately majority of such terrorist activities are perpetrated by the religious fanatics of Islam. Such tendencies are not limited to Islam alone but it is seen mostly in the abhramic religion ie Islam Christianity and Judaism. I urge my readers not to misunderstand me as I revere all religion as no religion in the world tells its followers to go and kill in the name of religion. In its essence and origin, Islam is a religion of mercy and peace, of kindness and tolerance, and of knowledge and enlightenment; it is not a religion of violence, fanaticism and ignorance.
What happens is that because of a miniscule group of misguided souls the entire religion and the followers of it suffers. The pain that a innocent Muslim goes through when their religion becomes the center stage of any terrorist activity is very evident in the following article written by a Muslim devout in Khalij Times. I reproduce that letter verbatim for my readers.
“Khaleej Times: No Time to Hide for Muslims by Aijaz Zaka Syed (View from Dubai )
  Every time innocents are targeted in the name of Islam around the world, one can't face one's non-Muslim friends and colleagues.  I feel like burying myself in the ground.  Growing up in a religious family, one never thought one would see the day when being a Muslim could be a source of shame.
A distraught friend who has devoted her life to speaking and fighting on behalf of Arabs and Muslims wrote in yesterday saying "I've had it with the Arabs and Muslims and Islamic militancy. Forgive me but I am throwing in the towel."
I couldn't write back to her but understood her pain...  She grew up in Mumbai and is understandably upset.
My friend went on to say: "The Muslims and Islam have a problem and only they can solve it.  If they do not, the whole world will turn against them."
Can you blame the world if it's turning against Muslims? What do you expect when not a single day passes without the name of our faith being dragged through the mud by fellow believers around the world?
Is this what Islam and the noble Prophet teach and stand for?
It's all very well for us to say Islam has nothing to do with extremism and terrorism.  We can go on deluding ourselves these psychopaths do not represent us.
However, the world finds it hard to accept this line of argument because it sees the extremists increasingly assert themselves and take the centre-stage while the mainstream Islam remains silent.” 
 Religion seems to offer a particularly fertile matrix, in which fanaticism can grow, is religious belief itself the cause of fanaticism? Or is religion simply one of many catalysts that can transform desperation into extremism? We might find the answers in the teachings of the Founders of the world's major religious systems. What do they say about fanaticism and religious zeal? Did they espouse it or promote it? And if not, where does it come from?
Some particularly sharp insights may be found in the Bahá'í Writings. Bahá'u'lláh clearly condemned fanaticism of all kinds. In a statement that seems to foreshadow our times, He wrote:
Religious fanaticism and hatred are a world-devouring fire, whose violence none can quench. The Hand of Divine power can, alone, deliver mankind from this desolating affliction.
(Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 13
Religion itself breeds fanatics. If the teachings of the Manifestations of God had been followed, fanaticism would never have taken root within the religions they established. We can say this because fanaticism and hatred are so clearly contrary to their explicit teachings. It uses religion as a tool to further aims that have nothing to do with true religion. If we use a hammer to open a jar, we're going to destroy the jar. Hammers are not meant for opening jars, and they are powerful enough tools to do considerable damage when misused. Religion is one of the most potent forces known to humanity. Misused, it is capable of doing correspondingly great damage.
Why do the fanatics succeed? The answer lies in a short story. A man whose family was German aristocracy prior to World War II, Owned a number of large industries and estates. When asked how many German people were true Nazis, the answer he gave can guide our attitude toward fanaticism. 'Very few people were true Nazis,' he
said, 'but many enjoyed the return of German pride, and many more were
too busy to care. I was one of those who just thought the Nazis were a
bunch of fools. So, the majority just sat back and let it all happen.
Then, before we knew it, they owned us, and we had lost control, and
the end of the world had come. My family lost everything. I ended up
in a concentration camp and the Allies destroyed my factories. The essence of this story is simple. The terrorists are very small in number but they are very cohesive. Their negative attitude is cohesive as well. Therefore they can inflict so much pain. The good and peace loving people are much much larger in number but are not cohesive at all and hence their positivity and goodness does not percolate down the society. The fanatics are so cohesive that the fanatics rule Islam at this moment in history. It is the fanatics who march. It is the fanatics who wage any one of 50 shooting wars worldwide. It is the fanatics who systematically slaughter Christian or tribal groups throughout Africa and are
gradually taking over the entire continent in an Islamic wave. It is the fanatics who bomb, behead, murder, or honor-kill. It is the fanatics who take over mosque after mosque. It is the fanatics who zealously spread the stoning and hanging of rape victims and
homosexuals. It is the fanatics who teach their young to kill and to
become suicide bombers. Peace-loving Germans, Japanese, Chinese, Russians , Rwandans, Serbs, Afghans, Iraqis, Palestinians, Somalis, Nigerians, Algerians, Indians including Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims and many others have died because the peaceful majority did not speak up until it was too late.

Each religion brings out its own doctrines and insists upon them as being the only true ones. And not only does it do that, but also it thinks that he who does not believe in them must go to some horrible place. Some will even draw the sword to compel others to believe as they do. This is not through wickedness, but through a particular disease of human brain called fanaticism. They are very sincere, these fanatics, the most sincere of human beings; but they are quite as irresponsible as other lunatics in the world. This disease of fanaticism is one of the most dangerous of all diseases. All the wickedness of human nature is roused by it. Anger is stirred up, nerves are high strung, and human being becomes like tigers."

Thus faith turns into fanaticism. The communal frenzy erupts and religious wars are fought with ensuing mass destruction and chaos. There is no doubt that more blood is shed on religious wars and persecution than on any other cause. But this is no fault of an individual. It is the evolutionary weakness. It is not a crafty design of one individual, or one particular religion. Our inability to convert faith into the knowledge of direct perception (of the truths as preached by the religious seers) is responsible for this. The mammal in us is still strong; we have as yet failed to evolve as complete human beings.

When a person embodies values like spiritual wisdom, purity of heart, qualities of universal love and altruism, we call him a saint or a sage. Sometimes such a person contributes to the welfare of humanity in such a great measure that he is referred to as God -the founder of a religion. Such examples are Sri Krishna, Jesus Christ, Lord Buddha, Mahavir, Guru Nanak, Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Aurobindo, and many more. The list is unending; we encounter such great souls in every religion of every continent and in every era.  These great souls have intuitive knowledge of oneness of human race. Their intuition is based on their experience or realization and conforms to rationality and reason. They speak from the experience of realization of Divinity acquired after transcending the limitations of body-mind complex. They have the direct knowledge of Reality. Millions of followers of these saints intellectually and emotionally grasp their message of love and compassion; but cannot claim to have experienced these values as direct knowledge. They believe in what the saints say.
None of the saints or their religion preaches hatred and killing. Every religion preach that humankind is a single family and the earth its common homeland. There is no place for fanaticism or the fanatics.


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